a Confocal images of a GUV (λex = 488 nm, green) functionalized with cholesterol-tagged DNA immersed in an E. coli and DNA origami (λex = 561 nm, orange) containing solution before (left) and after (right) light illumination. Scale bar: 10 μm. After light illumination, the DNA origami (orange) attaches to the GUV due to the pH increase triggered by the E. coli. b Normalized fluorescence intensity Iperi (mean ± s.d., n = 11) of the triplex-forming DNA at the GUV periphery monitored over time. The time period of illumination is indicated in yellow, illumination leads to a pH increase and hence DNA origami attachment. c Confocal images of a GUV (λex = 488 nm, green) after light-mediated DNA origami (λex = 561 nm, orange) attachment to the membrane and addition of the DNA staple strands at the scaffold seam which enable blunt-end stacking. DNA origami polymerization leads to the deformation of the GUV membrane within 2 h. Scale bar: 10 μm. Source data is available for Fig. 5b.