Map: National-level outdoor PM2.5 disease burden in 2017 (from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease concentration-response relationships). Panels: Annual average population-weighted PM2.5 exposure levels and attributable mortality (rounded to the nearest 1000). (Left pie charts) fractional sectoral source contributions. ‘Other fires’ include deforestation, boreal forest, peat, savannah, and temperate forest fires. ‘Remaining sources’ include volcanic SO2, lightning NOx, biogenic soil NO, aircraft emissions, and oceanic and biogenic sources (Supplementary Table 2). Energy and industry sectors also include separate contributions from coal use (first wedge, counterclockwise). The residential sector separates the contributions from coal (first wedge) and solid biofuel (second wedge). (middle pie charts) fuel-type contributions. The ‘total dust & fires’ category is the sum of windblown and AFCID (anthropogenic fugitive, combustion, and industrial) dust, agricultural waste burning, and other fires. Other sources are primarily from non-combustion or uncategorized combustion sources (agriculture, solvents, biogenic SOA, waste incineration, etc.). (Right pie charts) Relative disease contributions (not including pre-term birth and low birth weight). Supplementary Data 1 and 2 provide all data in this figure, including the number of neonatal incidences.