a1–c1, Percentages of papers that used ‘type 2’ techniques (‘Methods’) (a1), transgenic models (b1) or medicinal plants (c1), organised by geography. Countries with fewer than 10 papers in the dataset were excluded (grey). a2–c2 As (a1–c1), plotted as percentage bars per country, with the same metrics extracted from representative non-African publications (blue). African countries are sorted by the total number of papers published (a2, top), excluding countries with fewer than 10 papers in the database. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.