a Percentage of papers with IF ≥ 5 that included any form of funding acknowledgements. b From (a), where declared, the source of funding, classified as domestic (black) and international (brown). International funding includes those received from any other country, including other African countries. Percentages are computed from each paper declaring either domestic or international support, or both. c Percentages of funder mentions of all African papers with IF ≥ 5 where international funding was declared (corresponding to the sum of brown columns in (b)). Where present, multiple funder mentions per single paper were individually included. d International funding links from (b, c) displayed by geography. Each funding mention is illustrated with a single line of consistent opacity and thickness. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.