a Overview of Africa’s neuroscience publications in the timeframe indicated, organised in nine broad topics as indicated by the different colours. Bubble sizes denote the total number of papers per country and topic, as indicated. b Total publications per year, with contributions from different African regions highlighted. Regions were delineated following the United Nations definition into North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa and Southern Africa. See also background shading in (a). c Distribution of research topics in Africa (coloured bars, for legend see (a)) and outside of Africa (grey bars). Source data are provided as a Source Data file.