a FACS and scMS data from the ‘high’ dataset (255 cells). Left scatter plot shows the FACS derived expression of CD34 and CD38 of each cell, colored by differentiation stage annotation (BLAST = blast, LSC = leukemia stem cells, PROG = progenitors). Plots to the right show the UMAP embedding of cells using scMS data (255 cells, 1134 proteins), overlaid with differentiation stage annotation and FACS derived expression of CD34 and CD38. b Volcano plot of differential protein expression between cells labeled as LSC & progenitor and blast. Dashed horizontal line marks the significance threshold of 0.05 and dashed vertical lines mark the effect size threshold of an absolute log2 fold change of 0.5. Dots represent identified proteins, with up-regulated proteins marked as green and down-regulated proteins marked as red. The box at the bottom shows significantly enriched gene terms from the differentially expressed proteins in blasts and LSC & progenitor. c UMAP embedding of cells using scMS data, overlaid with scMS-derived protein expression of selected proteins. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.