Table 1 Summary of major capital types and key providers of these capital3.

From: Financing a sustainable ocean economy

Capital type Description Key players/providers
Impact-only
 Corpoate Social Responsibility investment This is usually long term, but small scale in comparison to larger types of commercial finance. Expected rates of return are usually below market rates Philantropic foundations, NGOs, international financial institutions, corporations, official development assistance (ODA) agencies
 Public grants
 Philanthropic grants
 Public financing
 Official development assistance
Debt
 Loans Low-risk, low-reward types of capital that offer low or market rates of return. They are variable in scale, ranging from micro-finance to large-scale corporate loans Private and public sector, e.g. governments, corporations, multilateral development banks. ODA agencies, crowd funding
 Bonds
Equity
 Public equity Equity involves taking an ownership stake in an investment. Some types of equity are high risk, high-reward and can offer greater than market return. The scale of equity is very variable, ranging from micro-finance to multi-million dollar investments Private finance secctor, e.g. equity investors, venture capitalists, commercial banks, pension funds
 Equity investment (investment funds)
Blended finance Combines official development assistance with other private or public resources, in order to ‘leverage’ additional funds from other actors. It generally provides below market rates of return Same providers as for debt, equity, and impact capital
Subsidies Financial aid, commonly provided by governments, to an economic sector in order to promote economic and social policy Public sector (governments)