Fig. 1: Phylogeny of European threespine stickleback populations. | Nature Communications

Fig. 1: Phylogeny of European threespine stickleback populations.

From: Re-evaluating the evidence for facilitation of stickleback speciation by admixture in the Lake Constance basin

Fig. 1

The phylogram (maximum likelihood tree) is based on DNA sequence data from 69 total stickleback individuals from the 39 freshwater populations indicated in the maps (1–2 individuals per population). The left map represents a close-up of the Lake Constance (LC) region, located by a dark blue square in the right map, showing the precise situation of the two lake (ROM and MRH) and three stream (GRA, NID, and OBR) sample sites. The color coding separates the populations belonging to the circum-Mediterranean and Black Sea lineage (red) from those belonging to the Central, Northern, and Eastern European lineage (blue; populations from the LC basin are labeled in dark blue). The values next to nodes give the strength of monophyly of the corresponding branches based on bootstrapping (500 iterations; shown only for values ≥50%). Note the strong bootstrap support for the reciprocal monophyly of the two major (red, blue) stickleback lineages in Europe. By contrast, the basal nodes within the blue lineage lack bootstrap support, thus challenging Marques et al.’s assumption of an old, genetically distinct Western European lineage (the basal node of this lineage is marked by a gray square). The branch marked by the gray dot contains exclusively populations from the LC basin and the Danube river, highlighting their close genetic relatedness. The gray triangle indicates the BRO population chosen by Marques et al. as representative of their Northeastern European lineage. Two individuals derived from Pacific ancestors (CLU) served as the outgroup.

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