Fig. 3: Nonreciprocal frequency conversion. | Nature Communications

Fig. 3: Nonreciprocal frequency conversion.

From: Arbitrary linear transformations for photons in the frequency synthetic dimension

Fig. 3

A three-ring system with three modulation tones per ring, demonstrating a a conversion efficiency exceeding 1 − 10−5 from mode 0 to mode +2 in forward propagation. The input and output field profiles are indicated by sL and sR, respectively, and b the complex-conjugated output profile, \({s}_{R}^{* }\), injected back into the output port results in a conversion efficiency exceeding 1 − 10−5 from mode +2 to +1 instead of mode 0 in backward propagation through the same system, indicating highly efficient nonreciprocal frequency shifts. Modulation parameters are provided in Supplementary Note 6.

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