Association indices (also referred to as dyadic relationship strengths) of males within three second-order alliances used in this study (KS = blue, PD = red, RR = yellow) calculated in 6-year snapshots over a 30-year period. Association indices between males in different second-order alliances (i.e. between PD, KS and RR males that later formed a third-order alliance) are shown in purple. Association indices between males in each of the three second-order alliances (PD, KS, RR) and other adult males in the population are shown in grey. The range of association values in each category is represented by the vertical line. The time period during which each second-order alliance formed (became sexually mature and started consorting females) is shown underneath the plot. The shaded area delineates comparable bond strengths between male dyads within the same second-order alliance and male dyads at the third-order alliance level (as well as those between focal and non-focal males). As the second-order alliances matured, some bond strengths increased but overall bond strength remained highly differentiated within each second-order alliance. Note: If males disappeared, we only used the years up until they were last seen to calculate their respective bond strengths with other males (i.e. we did not use the full 6-year period for those males).