Table 2 Associations of circulating n-3 PUFA biomarkers with risk of total and cause-specific mortality in 17 cohorts: Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium.

From: Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies

Fatty acid All-cause mortality
HR (95% CI)
(17 cohorts; 15,720 deaths)
CVD mortality
HR (95% CI)
(15 cohorts; 4571 deaths)
Cancer mortality
HR (95% CI)
(15 cohorts; 4284 deaths)
Other mortality
HR (95% CI)
(14 cohorts; 6022 deaths)
ALA 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.99 (0.95–1.04)
EPA 0.91 (0.88–0.94) 0.88 (0.83–0.94) 0.91 (0.85–0.96) 0.92 (0.87–0.97)
DPA 0.87 (0.84–0.91) 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.87 (0.81–0.95) 0.88 (0.82–0.94)
DHA 0.89 (0.85–0.92) 0.86 (0.80–0.92) 0.93 (0.86–1.00) 0.90 (0.84–0.95)
EPA + DHA 0.87 (0.83–0.90) 0.85 (0.79–0.91) 0.89 (0.83–0.96) 0.88 (0.82–0.93)
  1. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs expressed per cohort-specific inter-quintiles range comparing the midpoint of the top and bottom quintiles (see Supplementary Table 4 for cohort-specific n-3 PUFA values). All HRs are adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, body-mass index, education, occupation, marital status, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, prevalent diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, self-reported general health, and the sum of circulating n-6 PUFA (linoleic plus arachidonic acids). See Supplementary Table 4 for the 10th and 90th percentile values from each cohort for each PUFA of interest and the average PUFA values per lipid pool. Abbreviations: ALA alpha-linolenic acid, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, DPA docosapentaenoic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, HR hazard ratio.