Table 1 Metabolic markers of matched healthy lean (HL), healthy overweight/obese (HO) and overweight/obese with T2DM (OD) subjects in the first cross-sectional study.

From: Hyocholic acid species as novel biomarkers for metabolic disorders

  Healthy lean (HL) (n = 103) Healthy overweight/obese (HO) (n = 103) Overweight/obese with T2DM (OD) (n = 103)
n (M/F) 103 (49/54) 103 (52/51) 103 (52/51)
Age (year) 54 ± 6 53 ± 10 53 ± 10
BMI (kg/m2) 21.62 ± 1.77 28.71 ± 4.42* 29.02 ± 3.46*
Glu0 (mmol/L) 5.3 ± 0.5 5.3 ± 0.6 8.2 ± 2.5*#
Glu120 (mmol/L) 5.6 ± 1.2 6.1 ± 1.4* 14.4 ± 4.0*#
Ins0 (mU/L) 5.21 ± 2.45 11.61 ± 11.94* 16.40 ± 19.36*#
Ins120 (mU/L) 28.12 ± 18.50 52.93 ± 55.52* 76.42 ± 57.44*#
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.5 7.1 ± 1.3*#
HOMA-IR 1.17 ± 0.54 2.77 ± 3.31* 6.03 ± 7.81*#
TC (mmol/L) 5.18 ± 1.08 4.85 ± 1.13* 6.21 ± 1.67*#
TG (mmol/L) 1.31 ± 0.6 1.34 ± 0.63 2.54 ± 2.39*#
HDL-c (mmol/L) 1.67 ± 0.34 1.36 ± 0.25* 1.19 ± 0.24*#
LDL-c (mmol/L) 2.57 ± 0.51 2.83 ± 0.43* 3.19 ± 0.84*#
SP (mmHg) 116 ± 10 119 ± 15 138 ± 20*#
DP (mmHg) 72 ± 7 75 ± 11* 83 ± 13*#
HeartRate (bpm) 74 ± 7 75 ± 7 78 ± 6*#
ALT (U/L) 23.5 ± 12.5 25.4 ± 12.4 28.9 ± 19.6
AST (U/L) 21.1 ± 5.2 21.8 ± 4.6 23.4 ± 11.5
  1. Values were presented as number or mean ± SD. Chi-Square was used to compare sex ratios between groups.
  2. Glu0 fasting plasma glucose, Glu120 2 h plasma glucose, Ins0 fasting insulin, Ins120 2 h insulin, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, HOMA-IR = Glu0 × Ins0/22.5.
  3. *Two-sided Kruskal–Wallis test p < 0.05 when compared with HL.
  4. #Kruskal–Wallis test p <  0.05 when compared with HO.