Fig. 1: Transdermal electroosmosis by a porous microneedle array patch. | Nature Communications

Fig. 1: Transdermal electroosmosis by a porous microneedle array patch.

From: Transdermal electroosmotic flow generated by a porous microneedle array patch

Fig. 1

a Conceptual illustration of the electroosmotic penetration/extraction for efficient drug delivery and analysis of ISF. The flow direction from anode to cathode is the case when the porous microneedles are modified with a negatively charged hydrogel. b Photographs depict a structural overview of the combination of the biobattery (four cells connected in series) and the porous microneedle.

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