a Fourier (STFT; top), wavelet power spectra (CWT; middle), multiplicative superlets (SLT; bottom) computed for the β- and low-γ-bands (15–60 Hz), and averaged across ten trials. Stimulus onset was excluded from analysis to focus on the fast oscillations induced by the passage of the drifting grating. b Zoom-in on the β-band. c Same as in b but computed after the signal was bandpass filtered in 15–35 Hz using a bidirectional Butterworth IIR filter of order 7. Absolute power shown (no baselining, linear scale).