Electromagnetic energy in northern, southern and combined (northern plus southern) dayside (blue, red, pink, respectively; a, c, e) and in the northern and southern hemisphere on the nightside (blue, red, respectively; b, d, f) passes are shown at three spatial scales. Band-pass filtering was done using the Savitzky-Golay filter, with small scales (a and b) derived using time domain filters characteristic of 75 km along track scales; medium scales (c and d) characteristic of 200 km along track scales; and large scales (e and f) characteristic of 350 km along track scales. Dashed lines connect the median values (marked with crosses), while the error bars show the lower and upper quartiles in terms of magnitude. The positions of the medians and error bars for different MLT and hemisphere sectors during the same time periods have been slightly shifted on the x-axis for visual effect and to enable the reader to better differentiate between the error bars. Note as explained in “Methods” that all electromagnetic power values are derived by integrating in time along the spacecraft world-line during an event, and dividing by the duration of the event.