Each point represents one forest survey for which the index of loss was estimated for forest biomass (a, b), tree species richness (c, d) and species properties (e, f). In panels a, c, and e, the shaded area is the original extent of the Atlantic Forest. In panels, b, d, and f, the box-and-whisker diagrams summarize the distribution of the indices of loss for each land-use category (i.e. bold centre line, median; box limits, upper and lower quartiles; whiskers, 1× interquartile range), organized from left to right in decreasing order of protection. The F-statistics, the associated p-value, and the number of observations of the models are presented, as well as the result of the Tukey’s honest significance test (one-sided, with an adjustment for group sample sizes) for difference among group means (lowercase letters above each box-and-whisker diagram). Degrees of freedom: 1579 (b), 1698 (d), and 1150 (f). Legend: Protect indicates Strict protection and Sustainable Use conservation units; Other indicates other public and protected lands (e.g. research centres, university campuses, botanical gardens, military, and indigenous land); APA indicates private land inside areas with sustainable use of natural resources, locally known as “Environmental Protection Areas”; Private indicates private land.