The standardized indices of loss were estimated for each forest survey (points), with biomass on the x-axis and species on the y-axis. By the margin of each axis, the distribution of the index is presented with the mean and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI 95%). Dashed lines separate negative indices (losses) from positive ones (gains). The index of loss is dimensionless and is highlighted by different colours ranging from dark red (high losses) to blue (gains). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the two indices was 0.22 (p < 0.0001, n = 1647).