a FEA results showing the von Mises stress of the surfaces of a TEG with Cu plate electrodes and a TEG with AgNW-embedded soft electrodes under bending conditions. b Von Mises stress of the cross-sections indicated by the dotted lines in a. c FEA results showing the first principal strain of the surfaces of the two TEGs under a uniaxial strain of 20%. d First principal strain of the cross-sections indicated by the dotted lines in c. e Resistance change as a function of distance between the ends of the TEG and its bending radius. The inset photographs show side views of the bent TEG for different bending radii. Scale bar, 2 cm. f Bending cyclic test of the compliant TEG showing stable electrical conductivity during and after bending cycles with bending radius (r) ~15 mm. The inset shows an enlarged view of the recorded data. g, h Experimentally measured TE performance of 36-np-pair-compliant TEG after different bending cycles with different bending directions of x-axis (g) and y-axis (h). The each inset is optical image of the bent TEG with the different bending directions of x-axis (g) and y-axis (h), respectively. Scale bars, 1 cm. i Resistance change as a function of uniaxial strain from 0 to 20%. The inset photographs show the compliant TEG under a strain of 0 and 20%. Scale bar, 1 cm. j Stretching cyclic test of the TEG showing stable electrical conductivity during and after stretching cycles with a strain of 10%.