a Demonstration of Rh thermal adaptation based on the mean Q10 values. The mean annual soil temperature (T) during 2010–2016 was 17 °C and 20 °C under control and warming, respectively. The average model-derived Q10 = 1.77 under control and 1.39 under warming. The mean baseline Rh = 1.84 g C m–2 d–1 under control (T = 17 °C). The average Rh = 2.03 and 2.18 g C m–2 d–1 under warming (T = 20 °C) when thermal adaptation is considered (w/ Adaptation) or not considered (w/o Adaptation). The %ΔRh = 8.2% means a 8.2% reduction in Rh relative to the baseline Rh = 1.84 g C m–2 d–1 under control. 95% CI denotes the 95% confidence interval. b Thermal adaptation in Rh when the uncertainties in model-derived Q10 are considered. The mean thermal adaption (%ΔRh) is 11.6%, which is different from the specific %ΔRh = 8.2% derived from mean Q10 values. However, both of these %ΔRh values are within the uncertainty range of %ΔRh. Different letters for Rh indicate significantly differences between the scenarios based on the Kruskal–Wallis test at a significance level of 0.05. The thermal adaptation (%) is quantified by the difference in Rh between warming w/o Adaptation and w/ Adaptation as a percentage of the baseline Rh under control (see “Methods” Eq. 9).