Fig. 5: Applied voltage dependence of the intensity map of electrogyration in NiTiO3. | Nature Communications

Fig. 5: Applied voltage dependence of the intensity map of electrogyration in NiTiO3.

From: Visualization of ferroaxial domains in an order-disorder type ferroaxial crystal

Fig. 5

a Transmission optical microscopy image with the incidence of unpolarized light along the c axis (Scale bar: 100 μm). Dark areas in the image correspond to NiO impurity. be The two-dimensional maps of electrogyration at the same area as (a). To obtain the maps, the difference of the transmission microscope images at the positive and the negative voltages divided by the average of them (ΔT/T) was calculated for each pixel detection. A 3 × 3 median filter was applied to the raw images. The polarization configuration was set at (bd) θ = +45° and (e) −45°. The applied voltage V was (b) ±12.5 V, (c) ±50 V, and (d, e) ±100 V. A ΔT/T color scale is applied to the images in (be). The V dependence of the average of ΔT/T taken at θ = +45° in the selected single domain areas denoted by boxes (ad). The red and blue dots correspond to the data of the areas surrounded by large and small boxes, respectively, in each panel. The standard deviation is shown as an error bar. The lines denote least squares fitting lines.

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