Fig. 3: STEM-CBED maps and CBED patterns in the R\(\bar 3\) ferroaxial phase of NiTiO3. | Nature Communications

Fig. 3: STEM-CBED maps and CBED patterns in the R\(\bar 3\) ferroaxial phase of NiTiO3.

From: Visualization of ferroaxial domains in an order-disorder type ferroaxial crystal

Fig. 3

a Bright-field scanning transmission electron microscope (BF-STEM) image obtained with the 001 incidence, where a domain boundary // (110) is indicated by a white dotted line. Crystal orientations determined from the STEM-CBED patterns of (c) and (d) are schematically shown. b Magnified view of a yellow-box area in (a). c, d (exp.) Convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns obtained with the 001 incidence at positions C and D shown in (b) are displayed in (c) and (d), respectively. These measurements were carried out at room temperature, that is, in the R\(\bar 3\) ferroaxial phase. e, f (sim.) Simulated CBED patterns of the R\(\bar 3\) phase of NiTiO3 with the (e) [001] and (f) [00\(\bar 1\)] incidence. The specimen thickness used for the simulations was 35 nm. The measured CBED patterns displayed in (c) and (d) well match up with the simulated (e) and (f), respectively [see higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflections indicated by yellow arrowheads]. g, h STEM-CBED maps obtained from the intensities of the HOLZ reflections at G and H [yellow-dotted circles in (e) and (f), respectively]. i Orientations of A+ and A− domains and the domain boundary determined from the STEM-CBED measurements. Scale bar: 200 nm for (a) and 5 nm for panels (b), (g), and (h).

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