Fig. 5: Lithium flow until the year 2100. | Nature Communications

Fig. 5: Lithium flow until the year 2100.

From: Assessment of lithium criticality in the global energy transition and addressing policy gaps in transportation

Fig. 5

The material flow analysis visualises the sectoral interaction of the integrated demand projection model. The total figures of the base case demand are used in this case. Accordingly, 68.03 Mt of inflowing fresh Li splits into four streams supplying—together with backflowing recycled material—the demand of the considered fields of application. The gross demand of BEVs is quantitatively standing out. A strong flow of second-life material is used in the stationary sector, reducing its net demand to 2.28 Mt Li. Except for the material currently used in the year 2100 stock, a strong recycling loop maintains the lion’s share of Li in the system. Only 16.74 Mt of Li flows out through industrial applications that are not recycled at all and losses within the recycling process.

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