Fig. 2: Schematic of the stepwise actuation of the rewritable acoustic hologram. | Nature Communications

Fig. 2: Schematic of the stepwise actuation of the rewritable acoustic hologram.

From: Spatial ultrasound modulation by digitally controlling microbubble arrays

Fig. 2

a A bubble pattern is generated on-demand by a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) chip with 100 × 100 electronically addressable pixels. A controlled current at each pixel causes electrolysis. b An ultrasonic transducer generates a plane acoustic wave that transmits through the chip. The presence of a microbubble locally blocks the acoustic wave. Thus, a spatially modulated wavefront is generated that represents a binary amplitude hologram. The wave passes only through the bubble-free regions. The modulated acoustic wave propagates and diffracts to form an acoustic image at the target plane. Suspended particles are concentrated in areas of high acoustic amplitude by the acoustic radiation force. c A conveyor-driven polymer film removes the bubble pattern, and the cycle restarts.

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