Table 1 Main phosphorus (P) statistics in kg P ha−1yr−1 for all continents and selected countries.

From: Global phosphorus shortage will be aggravated by soil erosion

  Global Africa North America South America Geographic Europe EU15a NEU11b Asia China Oceania Australia
Atmospheric input 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.2
Chemical fertilizer 8.8 1.7 10.0 11.4 5.9 13.7 5.2 11.9 19.0 12.7 10.4
Organic P management −5.2 −2.2 −7.1 −8.7 −6.3 −12.2 −8.5 −3.9 −7.6 −2.5 −4.1
Erosion from:
Non-plant avail. Pc −3.2 −5.4 −2.4 −5.1 −0.6 −0.9 −0.7 −4.1 −6.4 −0.9 −0.5
Plant avail. inorganic Pc −1.3 −1.9 −0.8 −1.8 −0.2 −0.5 −0.2 −1.8 −2.8 −0.6 −0.2
Plant avail. organic Pc −1.4 −2.3 −1.3 −2.0 −0.3 −0.7 −0.3 −1.8 −3.2 −0.3 −0.2
Total soil P −5.9 −9.6 −4.6 −8.9 −1.2 −2.1 −1.2 −7.8 −12.3 −1.8 −0.9
Balanced −1.9 −9.7 −1.6 −6.1 −1.3 −0.4 −4.3 0.6 −0.4 8.5 5.6
Balance – Chem. Ferte −10.7 −11.4 −11.6 −17.4 −7.3 −14.1 −9.5 −11.3 −19.5 −4.2 −4.8
Erosion loss (%) \(54.6_{7.0}^{10.4}\) \(84.5_{10.6}^{15.6}\) \(39.5_{5.1}^{7.5}\) \(50.8_{6.5}^{9.6}\) \(15.8_{2.0}^{3.0}\) \(15.0_{1.9}^{2.8}\) \(12.7_{1.6}^{2.4}\) \(69.3_{8.7}^{12.8}\) \(63.3_{8.0}^{11.9}\) \(43.7_{5.5}^{8.1}\) \(19.1_{2.4}^{3.6}\)
  1. Organic P management = sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake. Total soil P = total P depletion of soils due to soil erosion by water globally. Erosion loss (%) = Ratio of erosion losses to soil P balance excluding chemical fertilizer (balance—chemical fertilizer) with non-symmetric to the mean uncertainty estimates in %. Positive numbers give net retention in soils, negative depletion of soils. Geographic Europe includes European parts of the former Soviet Union.
  2. aEU15 (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom)
  3. bNEU11: Central and eastern European countries joining the EU after 2004: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia
  4. csee the definition of plant available and non-plant available soil pools in the methods section following Hedley et al.38 and Helfenstein et al.41
  5. dBalance = atmospheric input + chemical fertilizer + organic P management + total soil P losses due to soil erosion
  6. eBalance—Chem. Fert. = hypothetical Balance without chemical P fertilizer input