a Global means of partial temperature changes shown in Fig. 1e–j (K; ordinate) as a function of model number (abscissa) captured by the first three EOF (empirical orthogonal function) modes and b the same as a but for the remaining fields. Different feedback processes are represented by different colors using the color scheme on the bottom. The solid red line corresponds to the (vertical) sum of the stacked color bars and the dashed black line corresponds to the global mean of individual models’ temperature changes shown in Fig. 1c, namely, the global warming spread (GWS), or the global (glb) mean of warming pattern spread (WPS). Models are in the order of their projected global-mean surface warming from the smallest to the largest. The abbreviations AL, WV, CLD, ATM, OCN, and HF (f) stand for processes of ice-albedo, water vapor, clouds, atmospheric dynamics, ocean dynamics plus heat storage, and surface turbulent heat fluxes, respectively.