a Cumulative release performance of MIT in buffer with the same amount of MIT in different carriers. b Sterile maintenance performance under different conditions with the same MIT amount. All error bars are equivalent (SD positive and negative values) and represent standard deviation with n = 3. c Corresponding fluorescence microscopy images of E. coli. The presented fluorescence images were taken on the 10th day of the microbial strength tests of MIT and MIT-3s-TiO2–HoMS, which started with the same MIT amount. The scale bar is 5 μm. The merged images were processed and analyzed by ImageJ software. d Bacterial-responsive release profiles of MIT, MIT–TiO2 hollow spheres, MIT-2s-TiO2–HoMS, MIT-3s-TiO2–HoMS, and SBA-15. e Antibacterial cycling performance with introduced bacteria (columns) and cumulative release percentage with bacteria (hollow circles) and without bacteria (solid circles). f Responsive release performance of different carriers during one antibacterial stimulation cycle. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.