a Experimental schematic showing infrared light beams incident and scattered by an atomic force microscope tip. The near-field response is detected through the scattered light in the far-field. b Schematic diagram of twisted bilayer graphene showing different stacking configurations. c Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dark-field image obtained by selecting the graphene diffraction peak in a TBG. The contrast of AB/BA domains is associated with the antisymmetric shift of lattice period in AB and BA domains. d and e Near-field images of the normalized near-field scattering amplitude s(ω) in false color maps revealing the domain walls in TBG without bottom h-BN taken at 940 cm−1 (d the plasmon polariton resonant wavelength) and 1420 cm−1 (e the phonon polariton resonant wavelength). The twisted angle is about 0.02°. The contrast seen of the domain walls is associated with the reflectivity of the plasmon polariton in graphene and phonon polariton in h-BN, respectively. Scale bar: 500 nm. Note: this sample was purposely doped to increase the plasmonic response.