Table 1 Comparison of extra-neural peripheral nerve interfaces.

From: Printable microscale interfaces for long-term peripheral nerve mapping and precision control

Investigators Interface type Implant site D (mm) L (mm) Experiment Results
Leob and Peck61 Split cuff Sciatic nerve, cat 3–4 10–15 Chronic recording, spontaneous Vpp = 25 µV, 24 days longevity
Sahin et al.62,63 Spiral cuff Hypoglossal nerve, dog 2.5 20 Chronic recording, spontaneous Vpp = 12 µV, SNR = 2.6 dB
7 months longevity
Stocker and Muntzel17 Split cuff Splanchnic nerve, rat 0.5–1 2 Chronic recording, spontaneous Vpp = 30 µV, 22 days longevity
Sabetian et al.64 Split cuff Sciatic nerve, rat 1.25 13 Acute recording, stimulation evoked Vpp = 70 µV, SNR = 5.5 dB
Struijk and Thomsen18 Spiral cuff Tibial nerve, rabbit 2 20 Subchronic recording, natural evoked Vpp = 10 µV, 5 days longevity
Chu et al.65 Spiral cuff Sciatic nerve, rat 1 10 Acute recording, natural evoked Vpp = 10 µV, SNR = 3 dB
Plachta et al.66 Spiral cuff Vagus, rat 0.8 20 Acute recording, natural evoked
Acute stimulation, single channel
Vpp = 10 µV
Imax = 1000 µA, baroreflex activation
Lee et al.67 Spiral cuff Sciatic nerve, rat 1 10 Acute recording, stimulation evoked Vpp = 3000 µV
Tarler and Mortimer19 Spiral cuff Sciatic nerve, cat 2.7–3.3 8 Acute stimulation, multichannel Imax = 2000 µA, selective joint torque
Tyler and Durand20 Flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) Sciatic nerve, cat 3–4 7 Acute stimulation, multichannel Imax = 2000 µA, selective joint torque
Elyahoodayan et al.21 Lyse-and-attract cuff electrode (LACE) Sciatic nerve, rat 1.3 10 Acute recording, stimulation evoked
Acute stimulation, single channel
Vpp = 400 µV
Imax = 200 µA, EMG recruitment
Seo et al.68 Neural dust Sciatic nerve, rat 1 3 Acute recording, stimulation evoked Vpp = 900 µV
Xiang et al.24 Neural ribbon Sciatic and peroneal nerves, rat 0.3–0.6 3–5 Acute recording, stimulation evoked Vpp = 125 µV
Lee et al.22 Neural clip Vagus, sciatic, and pelvic nerves, rat 0.25–0.6 2 Acute stimulation, single channel Imax = 200 µA, voiding and baroreflex activation
González-González et al.25 Multielectrode soft cuffs (MSC) Sciatic and pelvic nerves, rat 0.2–1 1 Acute recording, natural evoked
Subchronic recording, stimulation evoked
Acute stimulation, multichannel
Vpp = 150 µV
Vpp = 400 µV, 30 days longevity
Imax =  100 µA, selective joint angle
Present work Nanoclip, polyimide thin-film electrodes Tracheosyringeal nerve, zebra finch 0.15 0.3 Acute recording, stimulation evoked
Chronic recording, spontaneous
Acute stimulation, multichannel
Vpp = 3000 µV, SNR = 48.1
Vpp = 500 µV, SNR = 10, 30 days longevity
Imax = 200 µA, fictive singing
  1. D estimates the diameter of the implanted nerve. L indicates the length of the nerve interface. Stimulation evoked: recorded activity was evoked by electrical stimulation of the implanted nerve. Natural evoked: recorded activity was evoked by naturalistic activation of sensory responses. Spontaneous: recorded activity was result of spontaneous behavior or processes.