a Schema for chronic recording of nXIIts activity in the singing bird. A nanoclip was implanted on the right-side nXIIts; song-triggered acquisition software captured both vocalization and concurrent nXIIts activity. Example song motif spectrogram from bird shown in (b–d); black bars above the spectrogram indicate the beginning and end of each syllable in the motif (“A,” “B,” and “C”). b Representative example of chronic nXIIts recording aligned to song. Top row: spectrogram of bird’s song containing three song bouts, each with two repeated motifs. Black bars above the spectrogram indicate song syllable boundaries; gray bands denote song motifs. Red band identifies movement-related noise and associated motion artifact in the electrophysiology recording. Second row: unprocessed nXIIts activity. Third row: nXIIts activity (from second row) after common-mode subtraction (CMS) and filtering. Bottom row: smoothed nXIIts activity envelope. c Representative nXIIts recordings from the bird are shown in (b) on days 1, 10, 20, and 30 post implant. Gray line shows the smoothed activity envelope for each recording. Dark bars at top indicate the recording alignment to syllables; bars at bottom indicate time, voltage, and signal envelope scale. d Stability of chronic recordings from the bird appearing in (b, c) over 30 days. Left-top: song-aligned nXIIts activity envelopes for motifs produced on days 1, 10, 20, and 30 post implant. Left-bottom: mean song-aligned activity envelope (over ten trials) recorded on days 1, 10, 20, and 30 post implant. Line colors indicate recording day. Middle left: running correlation between the song-aligned nXIIts activity envelope and the mean day 1 activity envelope. Middle: running peak-to-peak voltage during singing. Middle right: running SNR of recordings during singing. Far-right: Running estimated event rates during singing. e Summary data of chronic recordings over 30 days in n = 3 birds; symbols identify individual birds. Top: mean daily trial-by-trial Pearson’s correlation to the average activity pattern on the 1st day of singing. Middle-top: mean daily peak-to-peak voltage. Middle-bottom: mean daily SNR of nXIIts recordings. Bottom: mean daily event rates. Source data are provided as a Source Data File.