Bars depict the areal proportion of critical, other, and both mining areas that overlap with currently Protected Areas (panel a) and conservation priorities (Key Biodiversity Areas [panel b] and Remaining Wilderness [panel c]). Mining areas were mapped using a 50-cell radius around known mining properties, separated into those that are listed as being in pre-operational, operational, and closed phases. Stars denote significance differences (*p < 0.05, ***p < 0.0001) among areas targeting different commodity types (critical, other, and both) within a mining phase (pre-operational, operational, and closed). Results hold when defining mining areas using a 10-cell radius around mining properties and when sampling at 300 km intervals. Note: Graphed proportions were calculated from full extent of mining and non-mining areas, whereas reported statistics were calculated using the 1 km2 cells sampled at 100-cell intervals.