a Schematic depiction of bladder anatomy. b Bar plots and UMAP visualization (gray, low; red, high expression) showing examples of genes with cell subtype-specific expression (arrows). c, d Immunofluorescence staining of bladder samples from PdgfrbGFP reporter line for c TNC, or d CD34, NG2, and PECAM1. Arrows: capillaries of the subepithelial zone, surrounded by TNC+ fibroblasts, arrowheads: large perpendicular vessels in deeper mucosa, surrounded by CD34+ fibroblasts. Scale bar: 100 µm. Consecutive sections were used for c and d. e Venn diagram of Tnc+ Cd34− (subepithelial fibroblasts) enriched genes from colon and bladder. f Examples of commonly subepithelial fibroblast enriched genes presented as bar plots and UMAP (gray, low; red, high expression). Asterisk: gene list of commonly enriched genes (see also Supplementary Table 3).