Both live and dead cells are represented in a single cartoon. 1 Antibiotic uptake (red dots). 2 Cell death, membrane damage. 3 Released AcrA binds to TolC in the OM of live cells, activating efflux from TolC pumps. 4 A secondary consequence of TolC activation is upregulation of five categories of efflux pumps. This upregulation is enabled by mulitple activators (purple), or by repression of multiple repressors (green). 5 Upregulation (arrowhead) of genes that reduce ROS (blue and brown) would allow tolerance of the antibiotic stress. 6 Downregulation (flathead) of porins (purple) would restrict entry of antibiotics.