a Scatter plots of microbial growth characteristics calculated from biomass (biomass-based specific growth rate, µB [day−1]), carbon and nitrogen substrate (substrate-based biomass generation rates, CµS [day−1] for carbon and NµS [day−1] for nitrogen, respectively. n = 76 samples were analyzed for the calculation of µB, n = 4298 and n = 6028 cells were analyzed for the calculation of CµS and NµS, respectively [of totally 6253 cells analyzed, non-zero values of CµS and NµS were used for this plot]). b Relationship of community composition to addition of substrates along the time of incubation. The community compositions at “Incubation time 0” show the compositions before incubation. c Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination plot based on Bray–Curtis dissimilarities of community compositions at different incubation conditions and time points (stress = 0.209). Arrows represent environmental variables that were significantly (p < 0.005, permutations = 10000) related to the ordination. n = 76 samples (one for Incubation time 0 and three for incubation sampling points [days 21, 68, and 557] per substrate for each sediment sample).