a Gating strategy used to analyze markers related to differentiation, activation status, senescence, and exhaustion together with identification of Tregs and TSCM within CD4+ T cells. Naïve T cells are identified as CCR7+CD45RA+CD28+CD27+ cells; TSCM are CCR7+CD45RA+CD28+CD27+CD95+; central memory (CM) are CCR7−CD45RA+CD28+CD27+/−; effector memory (EM) are CCR7−CD45RA−CD28+/−CD27+/−; terminal effector (TE) are CCR7−CD45RA+CD28−CD27+/−. Activated cells are CD38+HLA-DR+; Treg are CD127−CD25+; exhausted/senescent are PD1+CD57+. b, c Percentages and absolute numbers of different CD4+ T cell subpopulations in controls (n = 13) and patients (n = 21), obtained by manual gating. Data represent individual values, mean (centre bar) ± SEM (upper and lower bars). Statistical analysis by two-sided Mann–Whitney nonparametric test; if not indicated, p value is not significant. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.