Fig. 1: Arecibo Observatory and Green Bank Telescope observations of Saturn’s moon Titan. | Nature Communications

Fig. 1: Arecibo Observatory and Green Bank Telescope observations of Saturn’s moon Titan.

From: The root of anomalously specular reflections from solid surfaces on Saturn’s moon Titan

Fig. 1

ae Example AO/GBT echo spectra of Titan in the opposite circular polarization channel, adapted from Black et al.2. The observation date, subradar location on Titan, and maximum-NRCS are in the panel legends. The width of the echo from Titan is indicated by the green line on the x-axis; data beyond the green line are indicative of the noise. All AO/GBT spectra from Titan have a broad, diffuse component with an NRCS of approximately zero at the limits of the echo (endpoints of the green line on the x-axis) that increases toward the center. The NRCS of the central Doppler bin varies drastically between the spectra. Observations with anomalously high peaks (e.g., d and e) are the AO/GBT anomalously specular radar reflections. c Example demonstrating that the maximum-NRCS of some observations may be affected by noise. f Histograms of the maximum-NRCS of AO/GBT observations of Titan reported in Black et al.2. The black histogram includes all 83 observations and the red histogram includes only observations where the maximum-NRCS is ≥4 times the standard deviation of the noise (σ), to distinguish between observations with a high maximum-NRCS that may be due to greater noise and those that are confidently anomalous. Two observations have a maximum-NRCS ≥3.5 and are clearly separate from the distribution and thus anomalously specular. Another group of observations, with 1.5 ≈< maximum-NRCS ≤2, is also separate from most observations; these observations are also anomalously specular, albeit less so than the two observations with maximum-NRCS ≥3.5.

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