a Schematic overview of experimental design. VM-patterned hESCs grafted to midbrain of 6-OHDA rats and analyzed at 9 months (n = 6). These rats were used as follows: scRNA-seq n = 3; histology n = 3, functional recovery n = 6. b Overview of hNCAM fiber outgrowth from hESC-derived intranigral graft showing a neuron-rich graft core and extensive re-innervation of the host striatum. c Immunohistochemistry showing TH staining in graft core of a hESC-derived intranigral graft at 9 months post-transplantation. d Drug-induced rotation test showing functional recovery in rats that have been transplanted to the midbrain with hESC-derived cells (n = 6 rats; mean ± SEM; **p < 0.01; compared to post-lesion; two-tailed paired t-test). e UMAP embedding showing clustering of 7875 analyzed cells after grafting to the midbrain (grafted rats n = 3). f–i Expression level per cluster for indicated genes. Indicated genes are established markers for astrocytes, VLMCs, neurons, and DA neurons, respectively. All indicated markers are the same as in Fig. 2. j UMAP of grafted cells as shown in Fig. 4e. Cells isolated by FACS (blue circles, n = 5958) or not by FACS (magenta circles, n = 1917) are indicated. Scale bars, 1 mm (b); 200 µM (c).