a Schematic overview of experimental design. VM-patterned hESCs were grafted to seven rats and used as follows: scRNA-seq n = 2; histology n = 3; functional recovery n = 7. Cells from one fetal VM were grafted to three rats and used as follows: scRNA-seq n = 2; histology n = 1 (n = 1 because of limited access of fetal tissue). b Immunohistochemistry of TH in the graft core of hESC- and fetal VM-derived intrastriatal grafts 6 months post-transplantation. Insets show high-power magnifications of the DA neurons c, d Functional recovery of the hESC-derived cells by amphetamine-induced rotation test and spontaneous paw use (Cylinder) test (n = 7 rats; mean ± SEM; **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001; compared to post-lesion; two-tailed paired t-test). e t-SNE showing clustering of 660 analyzed cells before grafting (404 cells of hESC origin, 256 cells of fetal origin). Green, blue, orange, and yellow circles define the clusters. f Same t-SNE as in e but with origin of cells marked with pink circles (hESC) or gray circles (fetal) as indicated. g–l Expression level per cluster for indicated genes. Genes represent markers for the cell types (neural progenitor, neuron precursor, DA neuron) or indicated processes (cell cycle, neurogenesis, or DA neurogenesis; see text for details). Expression levels of indicated cell cycle genes are also shown in the t-SNE. Scale bar, 250 µM.