a The decay dynamics for the RTP in single crystal of rac-BINAP and R-BINAP. The rate constants kobs and kTT (red for rac-BINAP and blue for R-BINAP) are deduced from the data fit with Eq. (1). b The literature reported decay time of orange-red non-metal RTP molecules (for details of each number, please see Supplementary Table 3 and Supplementary Fig. 20)39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46. Spectral temporal evolution of the PL spectrum for (c) rac-BINAP and (d) R-BINAP in single crystal measured at variant delayed time with a gate width of 200 μs.