a Absorption and emission of rac-BINAP in THF. b Absorption spectra of the crystal of BINAP in each form. c The emission of rac-BINAP and d R-BINAP in single crystals. Steady-state emission (black circle) were acquired by continuously 360-nm excitation. The prompt fluorescence (cyan circle) were acquired by pulse excitation (360 nm), and detected by intensified charge-coupled detector (ICCD) opened at t = 0 with 50-ns gate width. The phosphorescence (orange circle) were detected by ICCD opened at t = 3.05 ms (rac-BINAP) and t = 1.55 ms (R-BINAP) with 200-μs gate width. The fluorescence (blue solid lines) and phosphorescence (red solid lines) spectra were deconvoluted from the steady-state emission with Gaussian function. e Photographs of rac-BINAP taken under 365-nm UV lamp and after removal of 365-nm UV lamp.