a Real-time deformability cytometry (RT-DC) of HL60 cells in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel yielding scatter plots of deformation versus cell size for control cells (left), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) vehicle control (0.25% (v/v), center) and 1 µM CytoD (right). Measurements have been done at a total flow rate of 40 nl s−1 in a PDMS chip with a 300 µm long channel and 20 µm × 20 µm squared cross-section using 57 µM MC for sample and sheath buffer, respectively. b RT-DC of HL60 cells in a virtual channel of 21 µm width and 30 µm height for control cells (left), DMSO vehicle control (0.25% (v/v), center) and 1 µM CytoD (right). Virtual channel is formed inside a PDMS chip with a 300 µm long channel and 30 µm × 30 µm squared cross-section using 57 µM MC (sample) as well as 50 mM PEG8000 (sheath). Measurements are taken at indicated position (Fig. 1a, gray rectangle) and a total flow rate of 94 nl s−1 (Qsa = 90 nl s−1, Qsh = 4 nl s−1). Insets show representative cell images. c Time series of single HL60 cell passing a virtual channel (sample 57 µM MC, Qsa = 72 nl s−1, sheath 50 mM PEG8000, Qsh = 8 nl s−1). Average cell velocity within the channel is ~20 cm s−1. Scale bar is 10 µm. Recording of time series has been repeated five times. Color in scatter plots indicates a linear density scale from min (blue) to max (red).