a Eccentricity71. b CO2 record (ppmv)69. c Reconstructed envelop for the ratio between global biosphere productivity and pre-industrial biosphere productivity as inferred from Δ17O of O2 at age t (interpolation to 200 years and 101 binomial smoothing with Igor software). d δ18Oatm record from the EDC ice core18,72,73,74,75,76. e LR04 Sea level stack (m compared to present) on AICC2012 timescale77. f Trees, shrubs and Picea pollen (%)16; g Si/Ti ratio16; a proxy of biogenic silica normalised to detrital, reflecting the changes in diatom productivity in the lake. h Pollen abundance (grains.cm−3) of ODP Site 64626. i Arboreal and Quercus robur pollen records (%) from Lake Ohrid, Balkan Peninsula46,47. j Alkenone mass accumulation rate (MAR) (µg ⋅ m−2 ⋅ year−1) and TOC MAR (mg ⋅ m−2 ⋅ year−1) records at Site PS2489-2/ODP10903. k TOC/CaCO3 ratio at Site PS2489-2/ODP1090, Atlantic Southern Ocean14. The horizontal dotted line separates the ice core records presented on the AICC2012 timescale24,70 (above the line) and the terrestrial and oceanic records presented on the age model of each core (under the line). The grey shadow bars represent the period of rapid increase in atmospheric CO2.