Colony of the coral Stylophora pistilla growing at about 10 m depth on Watakobi Reef, East Sulawesi, Indonesia (a). Close-up photograph (b, c) and optical coherence tomography scanning (d, e) of coral skeleton and coral tissue, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy image of successful 3D printed skeleton replica showing corallites in 1:1 scale relative to the original design (f). Photograph of living bionic coral growing Symbiodinium sp. microalgae (g). The living tissue was printed on top of the skeleton mimic and the bionic coral was cultured for 7 days. Scale bar = 1 mm (b–f) and 750 µm (g).