Fig. 4: Directional coupler switch characteristics. | Nature Communications

Fig. 4: Directional coupler switch characteristics.

From: Plasmonic monolithic lithium niobate directional coupler switches

Fig. 4

a Measured (symbols) and simulated (solid lines) electro-optical transfer function, showing the power exchange as a function of the applied bias voltage. Error bars represent standard deviations and are deduced from repeated measurements. For AC signals smaller than 15 V (with a frequency of 200 kHz), error bars are smaller than the symbols. b Wavelength dependence of the modulation efficiency (at the driving voltage of 15 V) normalized by that measured at the design wavelength of 1550 nm. Less than 2 dB modulation deterioration over all optical communication wavelength bands is observed. Error bars indicate the estimated standard deviation of the mean. c Measured frequency response as a function of the applied RF signal frequency, normalized with respect to the lowest applied frequency. The continuous shaded error region represents the standard deviation in the measured frequency response with a smoothed average between data points. The response in the measured frequency range is only restricted by the bandwidth limitations of the RF probe and the electrical feedline (red line).

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