Table 1 The global total of the three-heterotrophic ecosystem-level measures.

From: The megabiota are disproportionately important for biosphere functioning

 Pleistocene worldModern world%Reduction Pleistocene to ModernFuture world%Reduction Modern to Future%Total change from Pleistocene to Future
Global Heterotroph Biomass (Pg)23.60 (23.13, 24.10)18.00 (17.74, 18.13)−23.7% (−21.6, −26.4)13.20 (12.85, 13.55)−26.7% (−25.3, −29.1)−44.1% (−43.8, −46.7)
Global Heterotroph Metabolism (EJ/day)4.04 (4.01, 4.07)3.80 (3.76, 3.83)−5.9% (−4.5, −7.6)3.32 (3.29, 3.38)−12.6% (−11.8, −14.1)−17.8% (−17.0, −19.2)
Global Nutrient Diffusivity Potential (107 km2/day)3.01 (2.90, 3.12)0.80 (0.78, 0.83)−73.4% (−71.4, −75.0)0.23 (0.22, 0.24)−71.3% (−71.1, −73.5)−92.4% (−92.3, −93.0)
  1. Results are derived from the ensemble General Ecosystem Model (GEM) simulations of the Pleistocene world, Modern world, and Future world. Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. Percentages compare the difference between the Modern and Future worlds to the Pleistocene world. The percent total reduction compares how each of these global ecosystem functions are predicted to decrease from the baseline Pleistocene biosphere with a full component of large animals to a future world lacking the animal megabiota.