The cumulative number of mammalian genus-level extinctions for large and small body size mammals plotted against the sampling-adjusted last appearance dates (TLAD50). For animals, both North American (a) and western Eurasian (b) large (blue) and small (orange) mammals are shown. In both continents, phases of increasing drought (aridification; red broken bars) and fragmentation and heterogeneity of biomes is associated with elevated extinctions of larger mammals relative to those of smaller mammals (shaded areas). Graph modified from Tomiya19. For trees (c), larger trees exhibit greater increases in mortality rate relative to non-drought conditions. The different symbols and lines represent a unique drought instance within a given forest study (graph modified from Bennett et al.39). The dashed line is the expectation when tree mortality in non-drought conditions are similar to tree mortality in drought conditions.