a CO2, b and c CH4, and d and e N2O fluxes from the four class conversion stages expresses as mass fluxes of each individual gas and as CO2 equivalents (i.e., after accounting for the global warming potential of each of the three gases). At forest and drained sites both heterotrophic respiration (Rh) and overall soil respiration (Rs); at the oil palm sites only Rh was measured. Mean and SEM are shown, n = 5. Note that a negative CH4 flux data point at the drained class is not shown as a dot point in panel b and c due to the log scale. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.