a shows cut-outs of virtual unrolled multilayer sections of the measured X-ray tomograms at different SoC from the pristine state (000) to the partly discharged state (096) to −604.90 mAh. The thickness increases of the LixMnO2 electrode, during the discharge, is about 27% measured by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM). The intensity plot shows a higher lithium intercalation in the cell outward electrode side by a lower intensity ‘shoulder’. b shows a similar behaviour for the discharged cell imaged by neutrons. The electrode swelling is about 30% for a cell discharge to −745.08 mAh (07) and 26.5% to 580.55 mAh (06), which shows a similar electrode expansion as for the X-ray tomograms due to the similar discharge conditions. The plots illustrate the complementarity between X-rays and neutrons.