Fig. 2 | Nature Communications

Fig. 2

From: Stepwise shifts underlie evolutionary trends in morphological complexity of the mammalian vertebral column

Fig. 2

Time-calibrated phylogeny of sampled synapsid taxa. Thick lines: first and last occurrence dates of fossils. For more information see Supplementary Note 1. Non-mammalian synapsid divergence times reconstructed from ‘master’ phylogeny (Supplementary Fig. 9). Mammalian tree from Timetree.org72. Blue stars: Evolution of pectoral and ribless lumbar vertebral column regions occur at Therapsida and Theria30 respectively (OU3A model). Gold stars: Functional shifts inferred from increasing vertebral heterogeneity at Cynodontia and Boreoeutheria (OU3B model). Sloth image credit: Sarah Werning under, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license, no changes were made

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