Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Geodynamic evolution of southwestern North America since the Late Eocene

Fig. 5

Inputs and outputs for geodynamically constrained boundary conditions at Middle Miocene in southwestern North America. a Map of an initially constant GPE value for the lithosphere. b Boundary condition velocity estimates based on accommodation of Farallon- and Pacific-North America relative plate motions in southwestern North America. c Map of lithospheric effective viscosity obtained in final iterative dynamic model. d Map of principal axes of lithospheric boundary condition stress tensors superimposed on paleo-elevation model of Bahadori et al.8. Red arrows represent tensional, and black arrows represent compressional principal axes of stress tensors. e Map of contoured second invariant of boundary condition strain rates (E) and principal axes of boundary condition strain tensors. Red arrows represent tensional, and black arrows represent compressional principal axes of strain tensors. f Map of contoured second invariant of boundary condition strain rates (E) and model boundary condition velocities relative to the North American frame. Red line in all panels represents reconstructed position of the East Pacific Rise and SAFS. Blue line in all panels represents reconstructed position of continental edge

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