Fig. 5 | Nature Communications

Fig. 5

From: Revealing ferroelectric switching character using deep recurrent neural networks

Fig. 5

Interpretation of learned features based on phase-field simulations. a, e, i Generated piezoelectric hysteresis loops and b, f, j resonance response hysteresis loops under high activation as indicated in the activation maps the inset of b, f, j. These insets have the same colorscales as shown in Fig. 4. Arrows indicate the resonance pathway taken during switching. Phase-field simulations of (top) out-of-plane polarization, (bottom) electrostatic energy of switching under locally applied tip bias when the tip is positioned c, d within the c domain at the valley boundary, g, h within the a domain at the peak boundary, and k, l within the a domain at the valley boundary, wherein the applied tip bias is positive and negative at each position, respectively. Crystallographic orientation is indicated in the bottom left corner. Polarization direction is indicated in the right corner. Color scale for the polarization and electrostatic energy is presented as diverging perceptually uniform colormaps as indicated in the colorbar

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